If you happen to come across a casualty, you will need to assess the situation before anything else. It can be useful to remember DRABC, which stands for Danger, Response, Airway, Breathing and Circulation.
'Hello', 'Can you hear me?', repeat this while gently shake their shoulders.
If There is a Response
- If you can see no further danger, leave the casualty in the position that you found them and call for help (999) if needed
- Treat any injuries found, if you can. Make sure you monitor crucial signs, including their level of response, their pulse and their breathing.
- Continue monitoring and speaking to the casualty either until help arrives or they recovers
If There is No Response
- Shout out for help to people passing by, they can then call for help while you stay with the casuality.
- If at all possible, try to leave the casualty in the position you found them in and open their airway.
- If this is not possible, gently roll the casualty onto their back and then open their airway.
This will move the casualty's tongue away from the back of the mouth insuring they do not choke.
- Look, feel and listen and for a maximum of 10 seconds to see if the casualty is breathing regularly
- Look to see if the chest is inflating and deflating while listening for signs of breathing
- You can also feel for breath against your cheek.
feel the pulse at the neck (carotid pulse)
if pulse is present , continue EAR at the rate of 15 breaths per minute. Check breathing anf the pulse after 1 minute, then after every 2 minutes
if pulse is not present, commence CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
check breathing and the pulse after 1 minute , then after every2 minutes. If the pulse returns, continue EAR. If breathing returns , turn the casualty to a stable side position. Check for and manage shock, bleeding and other injuries
seek medical aid.